To yield to the possession or power of another person, influence, or course.

— Surrender, 28

to yield (something) to the possession or power of another; deliver up possession of.
to give (oneself) up to some influence, course, emotion, etc.: He surrendered himself to a life of hardship.
to relinquish (comfort, hope, etc.).
to yield in favor of another.

Sometimes surrendering enables us to let go of whatever has been holding us back from the very best in our lives. Surrender means to yield ownership, to relinquish control over what we consider ours; our property, out time, our “rights”, our desires.

To surrender in spirituality and religion means that a believer completely gives up his own will and subjects his thoughts, ideas, and deeds to the will and teachings of a higher power.

The condition of an enlightened mind is a surrendered heart.Alan Redpath
Love is an attempt at penetrating another being, but it can only succeed if the surrender is mutual.Octavio Paz
God can dream a bigger dream for me, for you, than you could ever dream for yourself. When you’ve worked as hard and done as much and strived and tried and given and pled and bargained and hoped…surrender. When you have done all that you can do, and there’s nothing left for you to do, give it up. Give it up to that thing that is greater than yourself, and let it then become a part of the flow.Oprah
Self-interest is but the survival of the animal in us. Humanity only begins for man with self-surrender.Henri Amiel

Who is in Control?

A pastor had been on a long flight between church conferences. The first warning of the approaching problems came when the sign on the airplane flashed on: Fasten Your Seat Belts. Then, after a while, a calm voice said, We shall not be serving the beverages at this time as we are expecting a little turbulence. Please be sure your seat belt is fastened.’ As the pastor looked around the aircraft, it became obvious that many of the passengers were becoming apprehensive.

Later, the voice on the intercom said, ‘We are so sorry that we are unable to serve the meal at this time. The turbulence is still ahead of us.’ And then the storm broke.

“The ominous cracks of thunder could be heard even above the roar of the engines. Lightning lit up the darkening skies, and within moments that great plane was like a cork tossed around on a celestial ocean. “One moment the airplane was lifted on terrific currents of air; the next, it dropped as if it were about to crash.

The pastor confessed that he shared the discomfort and fear of those around him. “He said, ‘As I looked around the plane, I could see that nearly all the passengers were upset and alarmed. Some were praying. The future seemed ominous and many were wondering if they would make it through the storm.

Then, I suddenly saw a little girl. Apparently the storm meant nothing to her. She had her feet beneath her as she sat on her seat, she was reading a book and everything within her small world was calm and orderly. Sometimes she closed her eyes, then she would read again; then she would straighten her legs, but worry and fear were not in her world. When the plane was being buffeted by the terrible storm, when it lurched this way and that, as it rose and fell with frightening severity, when all the adults were scared half to death, that marvelous child was completely composed and unafraid.

The minister could hardly believe his eyes. It was not surprising therefore, that when the plane reached its destination and all the passengers were hurrying to disembark, our pastor lingered to speak to the girl who he had watched for such a long time. Having commented about the storm and the behavior of the plane, he asked why she had not been afraid. The child replied, ‘Cause my Daddy’s the pilot, and he’s taking me home.’

There are many kinds of storms that buffet us. Physical, mental, financial, domestic, and many other storms can easily and quickly darken our skies and throw our plane into apparently uncontrollable movement. We have all known such times, and let us be honest and confess, it is much easier to be at rest when our feet are on the ground than when we are being tossed about a darkened sky.

Let us remember: OUR FATHER IS THE PILOT. HE is in control and taking us home. DON’T WORRY!”

When we know love matters more than anything, and we know that nothing else REALLY matters, we move into the state of surrender. Surrender does not diminish our power, it enhances it.Sara Paddison

Surrender to a Higher Influence, Course, or Action – What’s the Phrase Really Mean?

Surrender – it’s a term you may have heard, but what does it mean, exactly? Surrender is not a word often associated with positive actions. After all, “surrender in the name of the law” usually means trouble for someone. And we know that when one side surrenders to another in battle, it’s a sign they’ve given up any hope for victory.

Surrender to a Higher Influence – If I Do That, What Am I Giving Up?

If we surrender, what are we giving up? Does it mean, as it does for the enemy in battle, to give up on victory in our lives? Is the Higher Influence holding a gun to our heads and forcing us to give It everything we have, like a bandit or mugger might do? To be sure, there are those who are willing to portray “surrender” in that way, especially where self-gain is involved. But when we come to know the true character and nature of Virtue, we quickly discover how false that image is. By surrendering to Virtue, we soon discover the dramatic realization that in surrender we find more freedom, power, and peace than we have ever known.

The frustrated follow a leader less because of their faith that he is leading them to a promised land than because of their immediate feeling that he is leading them away from their unwanted selves. Surrender to a leader is not a means to an end but a fulfillment. Whither they are led is of secondary importance. –Eric Hoffer

Alcoholics Anonymous: Surrender to a Higher Power

We can learn a lot about “surrender” from Alcoholics Anonymous. Alcoholics Anonymous now has 1,700 groups with 70,000 members and influence far beyond its membership. A common foundational element in Alcoholics Anonymous is the “Serenity Prayer”. I am sure that you have heard the “Serenity Prayer” before, it goes like this.

God grant me serenity to accept the things I cannot change, courage to change the things I can, and wisdom to know the difference; living one day at a time, enjoying one moment at a time; accepting hardship as a pathway to peace; taking this sinful world as it is, not as I would have it be; trusting that You will make all things right if I surrender to Your will; so that I may be reasonably happy in this life and supremely happy with You forever in the next life.Reinhold Niebuhr

Surrender to the Higher Power is not difficult for alcoholics, because for years they have surrendered to a lower power.

Surrender is a key ingredient in the AA program of recovery, indeed it is the starting point. It is a paradoxical approach—surrender to the enemy you have been fighting. This concept is Eastern in its roots for Aristotle could never have conceived this route to victory!

What is the nature of this surrender, and what happens when you surrender? When you admit you are powerless over alcohol and that implies a surrender. It is a big shift from all those years of trying to control your drinking: the worse it got the harder you tried.

So what happens when you surrender? For one, you stop doing direct battle. Instead of trying to control your drinking you throw your hands up in the air and say: “I give up! This thing has got the better of me! It is out of my control!”

Until this moment you have filled yourself with “Yeah… but…”s Every attempt made by the Universe to reveal to you the nature of your problem has been resisted with denials, rationalizations and obfuscation.

Then, one day, something happens. It is like a muscle in spasm suddenly relaxing, suddenly letting go. A new world opens up. What we had been tensely resisting is no longer occupying our focus. We are no longer battling the notion that we cannot control our drinking.

Surrender implies a shift, a sudden change. Surrender is a global cessation of resistance: you stop fiercely defending your old ideas. All of a sudden, you don’t know anything and you are open to the new.

This surrender is also the path of many religious and spiritual traditions. Entering a monastery, taking a vow of service, shaving your head and taking on a new name, accepting Jesus as your Lord and Savior, accepting a Guru in Hinduism or a monk as your teacher in a Zen monastery—these are all moments of surrender. The value of surrender as an entry point to a spiritual path has been known and practiced by many cultures.

Science and rational thinking (Aristotelian logic) do not understand the value of surrender. Surrender is a quantum leap, not continuous, incremental change. Even our formal mathematics has great trouble dealing with discontinuous change.

In the human psyche, surrender happens on many fronts at the same time. Surrender is a transformation of posture, a major change of attitude. A dam has burst and outside thoughts, ideas and influences that had been kept at bay can suddenly seep in.

While it appears to the alcoholic that the main aspect of surrender is an acknowledgment that they cannot control their drinking, there are simultaneous changes occurring on other fronts that are crucial in setting the wheels of recovery in motion. Our entire system of defense involving rationalization, minimalization, distortion and denial is fragile like a glass bubble. When we crack it open in one place the entire structure crumbles. New ideas can enter and transformation begins on many fronts.

Battling alcoholism is like wrestling a porcupine. The harder you fight, the more quills and needles get embedded in your body. When you surrender and stop fighting the possibility of healing opens up.

The moment you say: this thing I have been battling is bigger than me, you are acknowledging that there are things bigger than you. There may be other Higher Powers out there too, and perhaps you can enroll one of them on your side. Surrender is a key step in creating and relating to the notion of a Higher Power.

Here in a nutshell, is the problem of NOT SURRENDERING. If you are in charge, then you can always decide to pursue vice. No matter how convinced you are today that you should act virtuously, there will come a time when the world does not look so bad and it seems OK to submit vice. Or, perhaps the world looks so bad that it is absolutely necessary to be bad! In either case, if YOU ARE IN CHARGE, you can always make an executive decision to be bad instead of good.

If you need protection from vice at these moments, it is absolutely necessary to realize that the urge to be bad does not originate in you, but comes from beyond you. It comes from thousands of years of practice and it is programmed into your genes, it is not a decision you are making in the moment. Just like a cat has no power over its attraction to catnip, just like a young hawk has to flap its wings and fly, just like the rabbit has to go find a mate and copulate, these urges are not things that an individual organism “decides” to act on. They come from beyond the individual. That is what a “Higher Power” is. Similarly one could argue that the urge to survive, the urge to get well and heal comes from such a higher power too. When you cut your skin the healing process is something that has been programmed in you by a Higher Power. You cannot merely “will” your skin to close up and heal. Similarly, when you surrender and accept that there are larger forces, you can let in the possibility that a larger force will aid you in your journey to goodness.

When you surrender there is a total collapse of the Psyche as far as the old organization of ideas. All of a sudden you don’t know who you are because all your old notions of “Who I really am!” go out.

Every notion of “who I really am!” conspires in keeping you stuck. When you surrender, you become a blank slate, over the next few years you become a new person, you get to redefine who you are as a human being. You may bring back some of the old qualities you’ve always had—your sense of wonderment, your desire to be kind, your innate sense of joy and laughter, your mischievousness. But you do not have to pick up once again your anger and resentment, your sense of shame, your bitterness at having been wronged by the world, your paralyzing fear of being found out by other and exposed, your desperate need to be flawless and justify every action and behavior, your tendency to condemn others and feel better than them—these don’t have to be part of who you really are.

When you surrender, your boundaries are breached and you are connected to the outside. You are no longer alone.

Surrender is an act of saying “YES!” Prior to that you were saying “NO!” “No, I don’t want to give up vice! No, it is not out of control! No, I don’t need help, I can manage being good myself! No, I am not bad!” Now you say, “Yes, I can see that I am out of control! Yes, need help! Yes, I surrender!”

There is power in saying Yes! Yes is positive, No is negative. When you say “Yes!” you are affirming something, you are letting something in. There is something inherently satisfying to the human organism in saying yes, rather than saying no. Try it just now… say NO! and see how you feel, then say YES! and see how you feel. There is a release of tension with yes. Surrender begins with a yes!

An interesting thing about the Alcoholics Anonymous movement is that it is strictly non-denominational. Catholics, Protestants, Jews, and even Atheists work together as brothers. No effort is made to win others to any particular faith. The organization seeks to be inclusive rather than exclusive. No one is barred by age, sex, race, or creed. The one condition is the sincere desire to stop drinking.

Old hippies never die, they just surrender to society.Stephen Mast
At fifteen life had taught me undeniably that surrender, in its place, was as honorable as resistance, especially if one had no choice.Maya Angelou
People of privilege will always risk their complete destruction rather than surrender any material part of their advantageJohn Kenneth Galbraith

A Story of Surrender – A Choice for Adam & Eve

In the beginning, God placed Adam and Eve in the Garden of Eden and gave them everything they needed. All that was good to eat was available and attainable for them. All, that is, except one tree – the tree of the knowledge of good and evil. Enter the serpent. Sly and deceptive in all his ways, the serpent’s first move was to question the word of God, when he suggested to Eve, “Did God really say that you couldn’t eat from that tree?” As we all know, suggesting that forbidden fruit may not be forbidden after all. Only the wise will question the potential result of giving in to temptation.

What if Adam and Eve had been wise enough to see the deception? What if they had recognized the choice that was being put before them, and rather than doubting God’s Word, they had chosen instead to obey God? What if they had realized God was to be obeyed, even if His command didn’t seem to make perfect sense to them? But note that God did not say to Adam and Eve, “you cannot eat from the tree of the knowledge of good and evil.” Rather, He said “…you shall not eat, for in the day that you eat of it you shall surely die.”

Adam and Eve were given a choice to surrender to God when He said, “you shall not” as opposed to “you cannot.” The fruit of this tree is not something we’re likely to find in the produce section of our supermarket, but rather it represents the alternative God offers to his followers today. Did Adam and Eve trust and obey Him for a greater reward down the road, or did they give in to the momentary desires of their hearts? Do we trust and obey Him for a greater reward down the road, or do we give in to the momentary desires of their hearts? Had Adam and Eve chosen to surrender the longings of their hearts to God, it’s possible that we may all be living eternally on a perfect earth, right here and now. Tragically, Adam and Eve did not choose that path. And because of that first act of disobedience, their descendants have become more and more prone to selfishness with each generation.

Before you decide to blame every problem throughout history on Adam and Eve, though, it’s important to consider that we are all given the same choice of “surrendering” that they were given.

It’s just that they were the first ones to blow it.

No matter how busy you may think you are, you must find time for reading, or surrender yourself to self-chosen ignorance.Confucius
A wise unselfishness is not a surrender of yourself to the wishes of anyone, but only to the best discoverable course of action.Seabury, David

Surrender in Relationships

The secret to good relationship lies in being able to surrender yourself to the ego of your partner. If you are able to do this ( and it is hard) you will find that the ego of your partner will instantly dissolve and the person will accept you and start thinking for your good. This is how love will blossom. The best way is to keep quiet and not speak back when some egoistically attacks, criticize, fights. The end result will be that the person will change his thoughts on you and start loving you. Ego is all about winning, so once you let the ego of your partner win, ego will dissolve and love will blossom.

If you surrender completely to the moments as they pass, you live more richly those moments.Anne Morrow Lindbergh
Love conquers all things; let us too surrender to Love.Virgil
All of our reasoning ends in surrender to feelingBlaise Pascal


From a spiritual perspective surrender is allowing “what is” to just be, or being with life “as it is” in this present moment. This kind of surrender doesn’t mean to give up or quit on yourself or life. Instead, it is more closely related to the saying, “Let go and let God be your guide.”

There are layers to understanding and experiencing surrender. Often times, we feel like we have surrendered when we are aware of being stuck and we finally decide to stop banging our heads against the wall. To surrender, in this sense, means letting go enough to be able to look at all of the elements in a situation that may be keeping you from moving in the desired direction. Meaning, you have relaxed your fixed thinking adequately and can allow deeper wisdom to inform your direction.

Other times we become so fixated on a certain end result we keep fighting the cues that life gives us and probably feel stressed most of the time. Perhaps we forget to look at what is necessary to do, or let go, in our lives in order to be moving with the flow of the Spirit. This flow allows for more peace and happiness and takes us ultimately to acting virtuously, where we really feel at home. Surrender can continue going even deeper to what some refer to as the ultimate surrender. The great spiritual teachers explain this as being completely one with God.

How do I begin to surrender like this and allow what is?

In order to do that you, would have to let go of your tightly held ideas of what you think must be. This would mean loosening and transforming the attachments that are connected to your personal Will in order to move with and relax into Divine Will. This profound movement towards surrender gives a sense of releasing into something bigger than us and our own personal agendas. One could even say that you were moving with the flow of the Spirit and you can experience being held by that Spirit.

Now this doesn’t mean that we ask for divine wisdom to make our morning cup of coffee or wash the dishes while we lie in bed. But as life moves on and some “things don’t work out” with our own ideas about how life is supposed to be, we use these failures as guides and lessons. They can lead us to a greater alignment with our life’s purpose and meaning. And though it might not always seems so at the time, Our Divine purpose will always be for the good of all.

For many of us there comes a point in spiritual growth in which the wisest next step can only be to surrender. We’ve been put on our knees by God for a reason.

We can begin by noticing when we feel extreme stress towards a certain life situation or event and then look at where we might be trying to push the river, so to speak. When you are pushing the river and going against the current you often feel body tensions, adrenaline exhaustion and other kinds of physical ailments, along with emotional angst.

Once you observe that you are pushing so hard, then you can examine the deeper meaning of this difficult challenge. Is it simply that we need to stay steady and push past our limited feelings and belief systems? Is it to push ourselves outside our comfort zone? Or on the other hand, are we stuck in a whirlpool about wanting what we want when we want it? Is it some form of an egotistical child-self that won’t let go?

Maybe it’s time for us to “float like a leaf down the river of life”.

We’ll want to examine our willingness to change and our limited belief systems that arise as we study the situation. It is important to observe the how and why we do whatever it is that is holding us back, so as not to keep repeating the pattern. Having greater consciousness around this situation allows us to be more deeply aligned with our divine purpose and the meaning of our individual existence and the ways that we have been called to serve our fellow man.

No matter how busy you may think you are, you must find time for reading, or surrender yourself to self-chosen ignorance.Confucius
Time always seems long to the child who is waiting – for Christmas, for next summer, for becoming a grownup: long also when he surrenders his whole soul to each moment of a happy dayDag Hammarskjold
One’s dignity may be assaulted, vandalized and cruelly mocked, but it cannot be taken away unless it is surrenderedMorton Kondrake

Surrender Yourself to the Wonders of the Universe

By Juan De Pascuale

The experience of wonder brings the world into relief and makes a person take life seriously. In wonder you realize that this is it. You have the opportunity to swim through the river of life rather than just float on it, to own your life rather than be owned by life. If attended to, the experience of wonder gives birth to self-examination and to a mindful awareness of the world and its Creator. In time you come to know yourself as you have been and are—and this gives you the possibility of choosing how to be. Through the experience of wonder we become true individuals and true citizens of the universe.


Most people, however, live out their lives unaware of the mystery of existence. Everyday routines of work and entertainment keep them from seeing the world and themselves in the light of wonder. They drift quietly through life like the autumn leaves that float on the surface of a river, barely noticing that they are adrift even as their place in the river of time empties into the ocean of death. This is the most common kind of life, literature and art tell us. It’s the life of Tolstoy’s Ivan Ilych, Arthur Miller’s Willy Lohman, W.H. Auden’s Unknown Citizen and Kierkegaard’s aesthete. The average life of the average person seeks to become just that, average—to be “just like everyone else.”

But why do people drift through life like dead leaves? The answer is simple: Drifting is easy and has obvious advantages visible to everyone, while the advantages of letting wonder teach you to swim through life are known only to those who actually do it. Yes, drifting can lead to worldly success, but it can cost you the only thing in life that you can truly call your own—your self. And therein lies the tragedy.

What good is it to know the world but not to know yourself —to be the scientist who succeeds in mapping the 30,000 genes of the human genetic code and thereby hold the biological secrets of all of mankind in the palm of your hand, but not to know the very person who_ holds_ this knowledge in his hand?

What good is it to satisfy the administration of the college and become promoted to full professor, but in the process fail to become a full human being?

What good is it to find a high paying job, fit well into the community, be well-liked and thereby succeed in “living well” but, for a lack of time or attention, fail to succeed in dying well?

I am no different from any other middle-age tenured professor. I enjoy mastering esoteric fields of knowledge, I would love for the college to award me a chair of philosophy, and I could surely use and would love to have a Lincoln Navigator to take my four kids camping. I do not doubt the value of scientific knowledge, worldly success or material pleasure; I only question the importance that people give to these values.

We are all adrift in the sea of time. What matters most is to be aware of what and where we are. What could be sadder than to have lived but not have noticed that one did; to have been born into Plato’s cave and died there without ever having realized that it was a cave in which one lived? And yet, this is the fate of most of humanity, and it always has been.


Experiencing wonder is essential for becoming a complete human being. Unfortunately for you and me, the character of the modern world does not provide the conditions that are necessary for wonder to easily grow into wisdom. We live in an abstract, impersonal world fueled by a mindless hunger for efficiency, progress and profit. In this world life has become a blur that produces confused anxiety rather than insightful wonder.

Wonder needs a sense of place to take root. It unfolds when the familiar is noticed to be unique. For that to happen people need to become embedded in the place where they live. But in the last 50 years we have built a society in which a large number of people live like rootless nomads, traveling across anonymous landscapes of identical-looking lonely suburbs chasing one promotion after the next. In a landscape where strip malls, hamburgers and residential areas are indistinguishable from one another, nothing calls for our attention. We take being for granted.

Wonder also needs time to come into being. But the marriage of capitalism and technology is racing us through time into oblivion. Speed is our god. We go to sleep fast, make love fast, wake up fast, travel fast, eat fast, work fast, read fast —and all this so that we can keep on going fast. Fast for what? When things go too fast, reality blurs and wonder has nothing to latch onto.

Wonder finds no support in our age of analysis, calculation and technical reason. We don’t value or teach people how to feel or attend to their experience. The art of self-examination, which can lead to self-knowledge and virtuous living, is not even a part of the secular curriculum of our schools. Instead we value and teach the abstract arts necessary to operate the machines and bureaucracies of the economy.

The individual hungering to awaken will, unfortunately, find little help. Not only is the character of the modern world inhospitable, but the fire of wonder seems to have gone out in our culture in the very places that were created to protect it.

Philosophy, Plato and Aristotle said, begins in wonder. Yet for most contemporary philosophers it seems to begin in puzzlement or intellectual curiosity. In our age philosophy has become a discipline mired in theoretical and textual minutiae. It is so removed from the actual existence of men and women that much of it does not even recognize existence to be a mystery that disturbs.

Willard van Orman Quine, perhaps the greatest American philosopher of the past century, said that the question of the meaning of life was not worth asking. When our brightest philosophical minds neglect the one question most human beings want answered, philosophy has stopped nourishing the soul.

Science, too, disappoints the hungry heart. Science has become so driven by research grants that one wonders if scientists can stand back from their instruments long enough to feel the wonder of the world they are pinning to paper like so many dead butterflies. In physics, the legacy of positivism is so strong that many physicists are content to believe the universe began with a Big Bang—but don’t feel the need or think it’s legitimate to ask “Why did the Big Bang, bang?” How can such a question not disturb one’s sleep?

I may be a Philistine, but I find mostly disappointment where you would expect wonder to flourish most radiantly: poetry. Read the poetry of today and you smell the musty air of the study carrel, not the fresh air of the forest or the pungent smog of the city. Cut open the poems of today’s poetry professors and ink spills out, not the blood of life or the pus of pain.

Education, ironically, does not guarantee arriving at the wonder that can lead to wisdom. Obstacles abound in the life of learning and study. The most treacherous obstacle is education itself.

Students of the humanities are in danger of falling victim to the most serious disease that can befall a spiritual pilgrim. I call this disease of the mind and spirit “Academentia.” It is the scourge of intellectuals of all types but especially of academics, writers for The New York Review of Books and theoretical Marxists.

Academentia is the delusion of confusing the order of thought with the order of being. Victims think reading is knowing and book knowledge is the same as being. Nothing could be further from the truth. There is no necessary connection between studying the humanities and becoming humane. History has proven this better than logic. Some of the biggest creeps in the history of the world were well-educated in the liberal arts.

When Academentia reaches its climax, the afflicted become so consumed by reflection that they stumble into existential contradiction: the difference between words and things, ideas and actuality, theory and practice become confused. The teacher of Romantic poetry may be moved to tears by reading Byron but fail to behold his own wife sleeping by his side. The sociologist may get so caught up in gathering and analyzing statistical data about families that she neglects her own children and husband.

The simple lesson here is that there is more to being good than knowing the good, more to wisdom than the accumulation of knowledge, more to virtuous living than refining intellectual capacities. In order to_ be_ you must do, and the doing that brings about personal transformation occurs in the streets, in your jobs, in relationships — and not in the classroom or the library.

A second danger facing the educated elite is the burden of privilege. History is filled with victims of privilege who had to spit out the silver spoon in order to become authentic individuals: Prince Siddhartha Gautama, who became the Buddha; Don Giovanni di Bernardone, who became Saint Francis of Assisi; and Count Leo Tolstoy, who gave away his wealth and became a simple Christian, are but a few examples.

The lives of these great men serve to remind us of the vain promises of privilege. Privilege* *can buy you many things. As time has shown again and again, it can’t buy you happiness or a meaningful life. These have to be earned the old-fashioned way: one virtuous act at a time.

The permanent temptation of life is to confuse dreams with reality. The permanent defeat of life comes when dreams are surrendered to reality.Unknown
Don’t seek God in temples. He is close to you. He is within you. Only you should surrender to Him and you will rise above happiness and unhappiness.Leo Nikolaevich Tolstoy

 Dostoyevsky’s take on Surrender

By Alan Dershowitz

I didn’t read much as a kid. The basketball court, not the library, was home to me. But like most aspiring young lawyers, I read a few legal biographies: John Marshall, Abraham Lincoln, Clarence Darrow, Oliver Wendell Holmes, Louis Brandeis – – these were my heroes. Their biographies were hagiographic. These were the secular saints of the law, and their biographers were obliged to present them as bigger than life. Even as a kid I didn’t believe it. I never trusted biographies. In reaction to having been brought up as an orthodox Jew, I was inherently skeptical of authority figures, scriptural accounts and perfect people.

Then in college I began to read fiction. Now here was something I could believe in, because it didn’t claim to be the truth or the word of God. Instead, the great novelist discovered truth without claiming to be faithful to the facts. My favorite fiction writers were Dostoyevsky and Kafka. . I wanted to be a lawyer even before I read The Trial, but it was reading The Brothers Karamazov that made me decide to become a law teacher.

Dostoyevsky’s major characters – – especially Ivan, Dmitri and Alyosha represented different aspects of my own personality. Together they were me, and the struggles among them were the struggles within me. I have reread the Brothers K at every important stage of my life and it has never disappointed.

The masterful grand inquisitor scene has challenged my view of religion and morality from the first time I read it. It still obsesses me, because its diagnosis of the human condition is so dark, and because its remedy is so authoritarian. Yet, I have reluctantly come to agree with Dostoyevsky’s diagnosis of a world in which “nothing has ever been more insupportable for a man and a human society than freedom.” Despite the rhetoric of liberty, most people crave – – and Americans are no exception – – “miracle, mystery and authority”. They believe that surrender to authority is necessary to deliver them from “their present terrible torments of personal and free decision.” Dostoevsky described the “fundamental secret of human nature” as follows:

“man is tormented by no greater anxiety than to find someone quickly to whom he can hand over that great gift of freedom with which the ill-fated creature is born.”

It is precisely because human nature is so antagonistic to freedom that “natural rights” is a contradiction in terms. There is nothing natural about rights or freedom. Indeed, these are unnatural conditions that must be imposed on human nature in order for humanity to be elevated above the natural law of the jungle. It is because human nature craves authority that the struggle for freedom is always uphill and never stays won.

Though I accept Dostoyevsky’s diagnosis, I reject his prognosis that in the end even the most rebellious “will become obedient,” because they will recognize that “if they begin to build their Tower of Babel without us [the church authority] they will end, of course, with cannibalism.” Dostoyevsky’s alternative to cannibalism is to submit to the authority of the church. But history has proved that submission to churches – – religious or secular – – often produces worse than cannibalism. It produces terrorism, crusades, inquisition and genocide. An alternative is the rule of law and submission to democratic process for resolving inevitable disputes, and we all know how that has been working out lately. Ultimately, surrender to God will be man’s only solution.

If our gifts are not surrendered to God, we tend to beat people over the head with them.Unknown

The Surrender Speech of Chief Joseph

My friends, I have been asked to show you my heart. I am glad to have a chance to do so. I want the white people to understand my people. Some of you think an Indian is like a wild animal. This is a great mistake. I will tell you all about our people, and then you can judge whether an Indian is a man or not. I believe much trouble and blood would be saved if we opened our hearts more. I will tell you in my way how the Indian sees things. The white man has more words to tell you how they look to him, but it does not require many words to speak the truth. What I have to say will come from my heart, and I will speak with a straight tongue. Ah-cum-kin-i-ma-me-hut (the Great Spirit) is looking at me, and will hear me.

My name is In-mut-too-yah-lat-lat (Thunder traveling over the Mountains). I am chief of the Wal-lam-wat-kin band of Chute-pa-lu, or Nez Perces (nose-pierced Indians). I was born in eastern Oregon, thirty-eight winters ago. My father was chief before me. When a young man, he was called Joseph by Mr. Spaulding, a missionary. He died a few years ago. There was no stain on his hands of the blood of a white man. He left a good name on the earth. He advised me well for my people.

Our fathers gave us many laws, which they had learned from their fathers. These laws were good. They told us to treat all men as they treated us; that we should never be the first to break a bargain; that it was a disgrace to tell a lie; that we should speak only the truth; that it was a shame for one man to take from another his wife, or his property without paying for it. We were taught to believe that the Great Spirit sees and hears everything, and that he never forgets; that hereafter he will give every man a spirit-home according to his deserts: if he has been a good man, he will have a good home; if he has been a bad man, he will have a bad home. This I believe, and all my people believe the same.

We did not know there were other people besides the Indian until about one hundred winters ago, when some men with white faces came to our country. They brought many things with them to trade for furs and skins. They brought tobacco, which was new to us. They brought guns with flint stones on them, which frightened our women and children. Our people could not talk with these white-faced men, but they used signs which all people understand. These men were Frenchmen, and they called our people “Nez Perces,” because they wore rings in their noses for ornaments. Although very few of our people wear them now, we are still called by the same name. These French trappers said a great many things to our fathers, which have been planted in our hearts. Some were good for us, but some were bad. Our people were divided in opinion about these men. Some thought they taught more bad than good. An Indian respects a brave man, but he despises a coward. He loves a straight tongue, but he hates a forked tongue. The French trappers told us some truths and some lies.

The first white men of your people who came to our country were named Lewis and Clarke. They also brought many things that our people had never seen. They talked straight, and our people gave them a great feast, as a proof that their hearts were friendly. These men were very kind. They made presents to our chiefs and our people made presents to them. We had a great many horses, of which we gave them what they needed, and they gave us guns and tobacco in return. All the Nez Perces made friends with Lewis and Clarke, and agreed to let them pass through their country, and never to make war on white men. This promise the Nez Perces have never broken. No white man can accuse them of bad faith, and speak with a straight tongue. It has always been the pride of the Nez Perces that they were the friends of the white men. When my father was a young man there came to our country a white man (Rev. Mr. Spaulding) who talked spirit law. He won the affections of our people because he spoke good things to them. At first he did not say anything about white men wanting to settle on our lands. Nothing was said about that until about twenty winters ago, when a number of white people came into our country and built houses and made farms. At first our people made no complaint. They thought there was room enough for all to live in peace, and they were learning many things from the white men that seemed to be good. But we soon found that the white men were growing rich very fast, and were greedy to possess everything the Indian had. My father was the first to see through the schemes of the white men, and he warned his tribe to be careful about trading with them. He had suspicion of men who seemed so anxious to make money. I was a boy then, but I remember well my father’s caution. He had sharper eyes than the rest of our people.

Next there came a white officer (Governor Stevens), who invited all the Nez Perces to a treaty council. After the council was opened he made known his heart. He said there were a great many white people in the country and many more would come; that he wanted the land marked out so that the Indians and white men could be separated. If they were to live in peace it was necessary, he said, that the Indians should have a country set apart for them, and in that country they must stay. My father, who represented his band, refused to have anything to do with the council, because he wished to be a free man. He claimed that no man owned any part of the earth, and a man could not sell what he did not own.

Mr. Spaulding took hold of my father’s arm and said,“Come and sign the treaty.” My father pushed him away, and said: “Why do you ask me to sign away my country? It is your business to talk to us about spirit matters, not to talk to us about parting with our land.” Governor Stevens urged my father to sign his treaty, but he refused. “I will not sign your paper,” he said; “you go where you please, so do I; you are not a child, I am no child; I can think for myself. No man can think for me. I have no other home than this. I will not give it up to any man. My people would have no home. Take away your paper. I will not touch it with my hand.”

My father left the council. Some of the chiefs of the other bands of the Nez Perces signed the treaty, and then Governor Stevens gave them presents of blankets. My father cautioned his people to take no presents, for “after a while,” he said, “they will claim that you have accepted pay for your country.” Since that time four bands of the Nez Perces have received annuities from the United States. My father was invited to many councils, and they tried hard to make him sign the treaty, but he was firm as the rock, and would not sign away his home. His refusal caused a difference among the Nez Perces.

Eight years later (1863) was the next treaty council. A chief called Lawyer, bemuse he was a great talker, took the lead in this council, and sold nearly all the Nez Perces country. My father was not there. He said to me: “When you go into council with the white man, always remember your country. Do not give it away. The white man will cheat you out of your home. I have taken no pay from the United States. I have never sold our land.” In this treaty Lawyer acted without authority from our band. He had no right to sell the Wallowa (winding water) country. That had always belonged to my father’s own people, and the other bands had never disputed our right to it. No other Indians ever claimed Wallowa.

In order to have all people understand how much land we owned, my father planted poles around it and said:

“Inside is the home of my people — the white man may take the land outside. Inside this boundary all our people were born. It circles around the graves of our fathers, and we will never give up these graves to any man.”

The United States claimed that they had bought all the Nez Perces country outside of Lapwai Reservation, from Lawyer and other chiefs, but we continued to live on this land in peace until eight years ago, when white men began to come inside the bounds my father had set. We warned them against this great wrong, but they would not leave our land, and some bad blood was raised. The white men represented that we were going on the war-path. They reported many things that were false.

The United States Government asked for a treaty council. My father had become blind and feeble. He could no longer speak for his people. It was then that I took my father’s place as chief. In this council I made my first speech to white men. I said to the agent who held the council:

“I did not want to come to this council, but I came hoping that we could save blood. The white man has no right to come here and take our country. We have never accepted any presents from the Government. Neither Lawyer nor any other chief had authority to sell this land. It has always belonged to my people. It came unclouded to them from our fathers, and we will defend this land as long as a drop of Indian blood warms the hearts of our men.”

The agent said he had orders, from the Great White Chief at Washington, for us to go upon the Lapwai Reservation, and that if we obeyed he would help us in many ways. “You must move to the agency,” he said. I answered him: “I will not. I do not need your help; we have plenty, and we are contented and happy if the white man will let us alone. The reservation is too small for so many people with all their stock. You can keep your presents; we can go to your towns and pay for all we need; we have plenty of horses and cattle to sell, and we won’t have any help from you; we are free now; we can go where we please. Our fathers were born here. Here they lived, here they died, here are their graves. We will never leave them.” The agent went away, and we had peace for a little while.

Soon after this my father sent for me. I saw he was dying. I took his hand in mine. He said: “My son, my body is returning to my mother Earth, and my spirit is going very soon to see the Great Spirit Chief. When I am gone, think of your country. You are the chief of these people. They look to you to guide them. Always remember that your father never sold his country. You must stop your ears whenever you are asked to sign a treaty selling your home. A few years more, and white men will be all around you. They have their eyes on this land. My son, never forget my dying words. This country holds your father’s body. Never sell the bones of your father and your mother.” I pressed my father’s hand and told him I would protect his grave with my life. My father smiled and passed away to the spirit-land. I buried him in that beautiful valley of winding waters. I love that land more than all the rest of the world. A man who would not love his father’s grave is worse than a wild animal.

For a short time we lived quietly. But this could not last. White men had found gold in the mountains around the land of winding water. They stole a great many horses from us, and we could not get them back because we were Indians. The white men told lies for each other. They drove off a great many of our cattle. Some white men branded our young cattle so they could claim them. We had no friend who would plead our cause before the law councils. It seemed to me that some of the white men in Wallowa were doing these things on purpose to get up a war. They knew that we were not strong enough to fight them. I labored hard to avoid trouble and bloodshed. We gave up some of our country to the white men, thinking that then we could have peace. We were mistaken. The white man would not let us alone. We could have avenged our wrongs many times, but we did not. Whenever the Government has asked us to help them against other Indians, we have never refused. When the white men were few and we were strong we could have killed them all off, but the Nez Perces wished to live at peace.

If we have not done so, we have not been to blame. I believe that the old treaty has never been correctly reported. If we ever owned the land we own it still, for we never sold it. In the treaty councils the commissioners have claimed that our country had been sold to the Government. Suppose a white man should come to me and say, “Joseph, I like your horses, and I want to buy them.” I say to him, “No, my horses suit me, I will not sell them.” Then he goes to my neighbor, and says to him: “Joseph has some good horses. I want to buy them, but he refuses to sell.” My neighbor answers, “Pay me the money, and I will sell you Joseph’s horses.” The white man returns to me, and says, “Joseph, I have bought your horses, and you must let me have them.” If we sold our lands to the Government, this is the way they were bought.

On account of the treaty made by the other bands of the Nez Perces, the white men claimed my lands. We were troubled greatly by white men crowding over the line. Some of these were good men, and we lived on peaceful terms with them, but they were not all good.

Nearly every year the agent came over from Lapwai and ordered us on to the reservation. We always replied that we were satisfied to live in Wallowa. We were careful to refuse the presents or annuities which he offered.

Through all the years since the white men came to Wallowa we have been threatened and taunted by them and the treaty Nez Perces. They have given us no rest. We have had a few good friends among white men, and they have always advised my people to bear these taunts without fighting. Our young men were quick-tempered, and I have had great trouble in keeping them from doing rash things. I have carried a heavy load on my back ever since I was a boy. I learned then that we were but few, while the white men were many, and that we could not hold our own with them. We were like deer. They were like grizzly bears. We had a small country. Their country was large. We were contented to let things remain as the Great Spirit Chief made them. They were not; and would change the rivers and mountains if they did not suit them.

Year after year we have been threatened, but no war was made upon my people until General Howard came to our country two years ago and told us that he was the white war-chief of all that country. He said: “I have a great many soldiers at my back. I am going to bring them up here, and then I will talk to you again. I will not let white men laugh at me the next time I come. The country belongs to the Government, and I intend to make you go upon the reservation.”

I remonstrated with him against bringing more soldiers to the Nez Perces country. He had one house full of troops all the time at Fort Lapwai.

The next spring the agent at Umatilla agency sent an Indian runner to tell me to meet General Howard at Walla Walla. I could not go myself, but I sent my brother and five other head men to meet him, and they had a long talk.

General Howard said: “You have talked straight, and it is all right. You can stay in Wallowa.” He insisted that my brother and his company should go with him to Fort Lapwai. When the party arrived there General Howard sent out runners and called all the Indians in to a grand council. I was in that council. I said to General Howard, “We are ready to listen.” He answered that he would not talk then, but would hold a council next day, when he would talk plainly. I said to General Howard: “I am ready to talk to-day. I have been in a great many councils, but I am no wiser. We are all sprung from a woman, although we are unlike in many things. We can not be made over again. You are as you were made, and as you were made you can remain. We are just as we were made by the Great Spirit, and you can not change us; then why should children of one mother and one father quarrel? Why should one try to cheat the other? I do not believe that the Great Spirit Chief gave one kind of men the right to tell another kind of men what they must do.”

General Howard replied: “You deny my authority, do you? You want to dictate to me, do you?”

Then one of my chiefs — Too-hool-hool-suit — rose in the council and said to General Howard: “The Great Spirit Chief made the world as it is, and as he wanted it, and he made a part of it for us to live upon. I do not see where you get authority to say that we shall not live where he placed us.”

General Howard lost his temper and said: “Shut up! I don’t want to hear any more of such talk. The law says you shall go upon the reservation to live, and I want you to do so, but you persist in disobeying the law” (meaning the treaty). “If you do not move, I will take the matter into my own hand, and make you suffer for your disobedience.”

Too-hool-hool-suit answered: “Who are you, that you ask us to talk, and then tell me I sha’n’t talk? Are you the Great Spirit? Did you make the world? Did you make the sun? Did you make the rivers to run for us to drink? Did you make the grass to grow? Did you make all these things, that you talk to us as though we were boys? If you did, then you have the right to talk as you do.”

General Howard replied: “You are an impudent fellow, and I will put you in the guard-house,” and then ordered a soldier to arrest him.

Too-hool-hool-suit made no resistance. He asked General Howard: “Is that your order? I don’t care. I have expressed my heart to you. I have nothing to take back. I have spoken for my country. You can arrest me, but you can not change me or make me take back what I have said.”

The soldiers came forward and seized my friend and took him to the guard-house. My men whispered among themselves whether they should let this thing be done. I counseled them to submit. I knew if we resisted that all the white men present, including General Howard would be killed in a moment, and we would be blamed. If I had said nothing, General Howard would never have given another unjust order against my men. I saw the danger, and, while they dragged Too-hool-hool-suit to prison, I arose and said: “I am going to talk now. I don’t care whether you arrest me or not.” I turned to my people and said: “The arrest of Too-hool-hool-suit was wrong, but we will not resent the insult. We were invited to this council to express our hearts, and we have done so.” Too-hool-hool-suit was a prisoner for five days before he was released.

The council broke up for that day. On the next morning General Howard came to my lodge, and invited me to go with him and White-Bird and Looking-Glass, to look for land for my people. As we rode along we came to some good land that was already occupied by Indians and white people. General Howard, pointing to this land, said: “If you will come on to the reservation, I will give you these lands and move these people off.”

I replied: “No. It would be wrong to disturb these people. I have no right to take their homes. I have never taken what did not belong to me. I will not now.”

We rode all day upon the reservation, and found no good land unoccupied. I have been informed by men who do not lie that General Howard sent a letter that night, telling the soldiers at Walla Walla to go to Wallowa Valley, and drive us out upon our return home.

In the council, next day, General Howard informed me, in a haughty spirit, that he would give my people thirty days to go back home, collect all their stock, and move on to the reservation, saying, “If you are not here in that time, I shall consider that you want to fight, and will send my soldiers to drive you on.”

I said: “War can be avoided, and it ought to be avoided. I want no war. My people have always been the friends of the white man. Why are you in such a hurry? I can not get ready to move in thirty days. Our stock is scattered, and Snake River is very high. Let us wait until fall, then the river will be low. We want time to hunt up our stock and gather supplies for winter.”

General Howard replied, “If you let the time run over one day, the soldiers will be there to drive you on to the reservation, and all your cattle and horses outside of the reservation at that time will fall into the hands of the white men.”

I knew I had never sold my country, and that I had no land in Lapwai; but I did not want bloodshed. I did not want my people killed. I did not want anybody killed. Some of my people had been murdered by white men, and the white murderers were never punished for it. I told General Howard about this, and again said I wanted no war. I wanted the people who lived upon the lands I was to occupy at Lapwai to have time to gather their harvest.

I said in my heart that, rather than have war, I would give up my country. I would give up my father’s grave. I would give up everything rather than have the blood of white men upon the hands of my people.

General Howard refused to allow me more than thirty days to move my people and their stock. I am sure that he began to prepare for war at once.

When I returned to Wallowa I found my people very much excited upon discovering that the soldiers were already in the Wallowa Valley. We held a council, and decided to move immediately, to avoid bloodshed.

Too-hool-hool-suit, who felt outraged by his imprisonment, talked for war, and made many of my young men willing to fight rather than be driven like dogs from the land where they were born. He declared that blood alone would wash out the disgrace General Howard had put upon him. It required a strong heart to stand up against such talk, but I urged my people to be quiet, and not to begin a war.

We gathered all the stock we could find, and made an attempt to move. We left many of our horses and cattle in Wallowa, and we lost several hundred in crossing the river. All of my people succeeded in getting across in safety. Many of the Nez Perces came together in Rocky Canon to hold a grand council. I went with all my people. This council lasted ten days. There was a great deal of war-talk, and a great deal of excitement. There was one young brave present whose father had been killed by a white man five years before. This man’s blood was bad against white men, and he left the council calling for revenge.

Again I counseled peace, and I thought the danger was past. We had not complied with General Howard’s order because we could not, but we intended to do so as soon as possible. I was leaving the council to kill beef for my family, when news came that the young man whose father had been killed had gone out with several other hot-blooded young braves and killed four white men. He rode up to the council and shouted: “Why do you sit here like women? The war has begun already.” I was deeply grieved. All the lodges were moved except my brother’s and my own. I saw clearly that the war was upon us when I learned that my young men had been secretly buying ammunition. I heard then that Too-hool-hool-suit, who had been imprisoned by General Howard, had succeeded in organizing a war-party. I knew that their acts would involve all my people. I saw that the war could not then be prevented. The time had passed. I counseled peace from the beginning. I knew that we were too weak to fight the United States. We had many grievances, but I knew that war would bring more. We had good white friends, who advised us against taking the war-path. My friend and brother, Mr. Chapman,who has been with us since the surrender, told us just how the war would end. Mr. Chapman took sides against us, and helped General Howard. I do not blame him for doing so. He tried hard to prevent bloodshed. We hoped the white settlers would not join the soldiers. Before the war commenced we had discussed this matter all over, and many of my people were in favor of warning them that if they took no part against us they should not be molested in the event of war being begun by General Howard. This plan was voted down in the war-council.

There were bad men among my people who had quarreled with white men. They talked of their wrongs until they roused all the bad hearts in the council. Still I could not believe that they would begin the war. I know that my young men did a great wrong, but I ask, Who was first to blame? They had been insulted a thousand times; their fathers and brothers had been killed; their mothers and wives had been disgraced; they had been driven to madness by whisky sold to them by white men; they had been told by General Howard that all their horses and cattle which they <<424>> had been unable to drive out of Wallowa were to fall into the hands of white men; and, added to all this, they were homeless and desperate.

I would have given my own life if I could have undone the killing of white men by my people. I blame my young men and I blame the white men. I blame General Howard for not giving my people time to get their stock away from Wallowa. I do not acknowledge that he had the right to order me to leave Wallowa at any time. I deny that either my father or myself ever sold that land. It is still our land. It may never again be our home, but my father sleeps there, and I love it as I love my mother. I left there, hoping to avoid bloodshed.

If General Howard had given me plenty of time to gather up my stock, and treated Too-hool-hool-suit as a man should be treated, there would have been no war.

My friends among white men have blamed me for the war. I am not to blame. When my young men began the killing, my heart was hurt. Although I did not justify them, I remembered all the insults I had endured, and my blood was on fire. Still I would have taken my people to the buffalo country without fighting, if possible.

I could see no other way to avoid a war. We moved over to White Bird Creek, sixteen miles away, and there encamped, intending to collect our stock before leaving; but the soldiers attacked us, and the first

battle was fought. We numbered in that battle sixty men, and the soldiers a hundred. The fight lasted but a few minutes, when the soldiers retreated before us for twelve miles. They lost thirty-three killed, and had seven wounded. When an Indian fights, he only shoots to kill; but soldiers shoot at random. None of the soldiers were scalped. We do not believe in scalping, nor in killing wounded men. Soldiers do not kill many Indians unless they are wounded and left upon the battle-field. Then they kill Indians.

Seven days after the first battle, General Howard arrived in the Nez Perces country, bringing seven hundred more soldiers. It was now war in earnest. We crossed over Salmon River, hoping General Howard would follow. We were not disappointed. He did follow us, and we got back between him and his supplies, and cut him off for three days. He sent out two companies to open the way. We attacked them, killing one officer, two guides, and ten men.

We withdrew, hoping the soldiers would follow, but they had got fighting enough for that day. They intrenched themselves, and next day we attacked them again. The battle lasted all day, and was renewed next morning. We killed four and wounded seven or eight.

About this time General Howard found out that we were in his rear. Five days later he attacked us with three hundred and fifty soldiers and settlers. We had two hundred and fifty warriors. The fight lasted twenty-seven hours. We lost four killed and several wounded. General Howard’s loss was twenty-nine men killed and sixty wounded.

The following day the soldiers charged upon us, and we retreated with our families and stock a few miles, leaving eighty lodges to fall into General Howard’s hands. Finding that we were outnumbered, we retreated to Bitter Root Valley. Here another body of soldiers came upon us and demanded our surrender. We refused. They said, “You can not get by us.” We answered, “We are going by you without fighting if you will let us, but we are going by you anyhow.” We then made a treaty with these soldiers. We agreed not to molest any one, and they agreed that we might pass through the Bitter Root country in peace. We bought provisions and traded stock with white men there.

We understood that there was to be no more war. We intended to go peaceably to the buffalo country, and leave the question of returning to our country to be settled afterward.

With this understanding we traveled on for four days, and, thinking that the trouble was all over, we stopped and prepared tent-poles to take with us. We started again, and at the end of two days we saw three white men passing our camp. Thinking that peace had been made, we did not molest them. We could have killed or taken them prisoners, but we did not suspect them of being spies, which they were.

That night the soldiers surrounded our camp. About day-break one of my men went out to look after his horses. The soldiers saw him and shot him down like a coyote. I have since learned that these soldiers were not those we had left behind. They had come upon us from another direction. The new white war-chief’s name was Gibbon. He charged upon us while some of my people were still asleep. We had a hard fight. Some of my men crept around and attacked the soldiers from the rear. In this battle we lost nearly all our lodges, but we finally drove General Gibbon back.

Finding that he was unable to capture us, he sent to his camp a few miles away for his big guns (cannons), but my men had captured them and all the ammunition. We damaged the big guns all we could, and carried away the powder and lead. In the fight with General Gibbon we lost fifty women and children and thirty fighting men. We remained long enough to bury our dead. The Nez Perces never make war on women and children; we could have killed a great many women and children while the war lasted, but we would feel ashamed to do so cowardly an act.

We never scalp our enemies, but when General Howard came up and joined General Gibbon, their Indian scouts dug up our dead and scalped them. I have been told that General Howard did not order this great shame to be done.

We retreated as rapidly as we could toward the buffalo country. After six days General Howard came close to us, and we went out and attacked him, and captured nearly all his horses and mules (about two hundred and fifty head).

We then marched on to the Yellowstone Basin. On the way we captured one white man and two white women. We released them at the end of three days. They were treated kindly. The women were not insulted. Can the white soldiers tell me of one time when Indian women were taken prisoners, and held three days and then released without being insulted? Were the Nez Perces women who fell into the hands of General Howard’s soldiers treated with as much respect? I deny that a Nez Perce was ever guilty of such a crime.

A few days later we captured two more white men. One of them stole a horse and escaped. We gave the other a poor horse and told him he was free.

Nine days’ march brought us to the mouth of Clarke’s Fork of the Yellowstone. We did not know what had become of General Howard, but we supposed that he had sent for more horses and mules. He did not come up, but another new war-chief (General Sturgis) attacked us. We held him in check while we moved all our women and children and stock out of danger, leaving a few men to cover our retreat.

Several days passed, and we heard nothing of General Howard, or Gibbon, or Sturgis. We had repulsed each in turn, and began to feel secure, when another army, under General Miles, struck us. This was the fourth army, each of which outnumbered our fighting force, that we had encountered within sixty days.

We had no knowledge of General Miles’s army until a short time before he made a charge upon us, cutting our camp in two and capturing nearly all our horses. About seventy men, myself among them, were cut off. My little daughter, twelve years of age, was with me. I gave her a rope, and told her to catch a horse and join the others who were cut off from the camp. I have not seen her since, but I have learned that she is alive and well.

I thought of my wife and children, who were now surrounded by soldiers, and I resolved to go to them or die. With a prayer in my mouth to the Great Spirit Chief who rules above, I dashed unarmed through the line of soldiers. It seemed to me that there were guns on every side, before and behind me. My clothes were cut to pieces and my horse was wounded, but I was not hurt. As I reached the door of my lodge, my wife handed me my rifle, saying: “Here’s your gun. Fight!”

The soldiers kept up a continuous fire. Six of my men were killed in one spot near me. Ten or twelve soldiers charged into our camp and got possession of two lodges, killing three Nez Perces and losing three of their men, who fell inside our lines. I called my men to drive them back. We fought at close range, not more than twenty steps apart, and drove the soldiers back upon their main line, leaving their dead in our hands. We secured their arms and ammunition. We lost, the first day and night, eighteen men and three women. General Miles lost twenty-six killed and forty wounded. The following day General Miles sent a messenger into my camp under protection of a white flag. I sent my friend Yellow Bull to meet him.

Yellow Bull understood the messenger to say that General Miles wished me to consider the situation; that he did not want to kill my people unnecessarily. Yellow Bull understood this to be a demand for me to surrender and save blood. Upon reporting this message to me, Yellow Bull said he wondered whether General Miles was in earnest. I sent him back with my answer, that I had not made up my mind, but would think about it and send word soon. A little later he sent some Cheyenne scouts with another message. I went out to meet them. They said they believed that General Miles was sincere and really wanted peace. I walked on to General Miles’s tent. He met me and we shook hands. He said, “Come, let us sit down by the fire and talk this matter over.” I remained with him all night; next morning Yellow Bull came over to see if I was alive, and why I did not return.

General Miles would not let me leave the tent to see my friend alone. Yellow Bull said to me: “They have got you in their power, and I am afraid they will never let you go again. I have an officer in our camp, and I will hold him until they let you go free.” I said: “I do not know what they mean to do with me, but if they kill me you must not kill the officer. It will do no good to avenge my death by killing him.”

Yellow Bull returned to my camp. I did not make any agreement that day with General Miles. The battle was renewed while I was with him. I was very anxious about my people. I knew that we were near Sitting Bull’s camp in King George’s land, and I thought maybe the Nez Perces who had escaped would return with assistance. No great damage was done to either party during the night.

On the following morning I returned to my camp by agreement, meeting the officer who had been held a prisoner in my camp at the flag of truce. My people were divided about surrendering. We could have escaped from Bear Paw Mountain if we had left our wounded, old women, and children behind. We were unwilling to do this. We had never heard of a wounded Indian recovering while in the hands of white men.

On the evening of the fourth day General Howard came in with a small escort, together with my friend Chapman. We could now talk understandingly. General Miles said to me in plain words, “If you will come out and give up your arms, I will spare your lives and send you to your reservation.” I do not know what passed between General Miles and General Howard.

I could not bear to see my wounded men and women suffer any longer; we had lost enough already. General Miles had promised that we might return to our own country with what stock we had left. I thought we could start again. I believed General Miles or I never would have surrendered. I have heard that he has been censured for making the promise to return us to Lapwai. He could not have made any other terms with me at that time. I would have held him in check until my friends came to my assistance and then neither of the generals nor their soldiers would have ever left Bear Paw Mountain alive.

On the fifth day I went to General Miles and gave up my gun, and said, “From where the sun now stands I will fight no more.” My people needed rest — we wanted peace.

I was told we could go with General Miles to Tongue River and stay there until spring, when we would be sent back to our country. Finally it was decided that we were to be taken to Tongue River. We had nothing to say about it. After our arrival at Tongue River, General Miles received orders to take us to Bismarck. The reason given was, that subsistence would be cheaper there.

General Miles was opposed to this order. He said: “You must not blame me. I have endeavored to keep my word, but the chief who is over me has given the order, and I must obey it or resign. That would do you no good. Some other officer would carry out the order.”

I believe General Miles would have kept his word if he could have done so. I do not blame him for what we have suffered since the surrender. I do not know who is to blame. We gave up all our horses (over eleven hundred) and all our saddles (over one hundred) and we have not heard from them since. Somebody has got our horses.

General Miles turned my people over to another soldier, and we were taken to Bismarck. Captain Johnson, who now had charge of us, received an order to take us to Fort Leavenworth. At Leavenworth we were placed on a low river bottom, with no water except river-water to drink and cook with. We had always lived in a healthy country, where the mountains were high and the water was cold and clear. Many of my people sickened and died, and we buried them in this strange land. I can not tell how much my heart suffered for my people while at Leavenworth. The Great Spirit Chief who rules above seemed to be looking some other way, and did not see what was being done to my people.

During the hot days (July, 1878) we received notice that we were to be moved farther away from our own country. We were not asked if we were willing to go. We were ordered to get into the railroad-cars. Three of my people died on the way to Baxter Springs. It was worse to die there than to die fighting in the mountains.

We were moved from Baxter Springs (Kansas) to the Indian Territory, and set down without our lodges. We had but little medicine, and we were nearly all sick. Seventy of my people have died since we moved there.

We have had a great many visitors who have talked many ways. Some of the chiefs (General Fish and Colonel Stickney) from Washington came to see us, and selected land for us to live upon. We have not moved to that land, for it is not a good place to live.

The Commissioner Chief (E. A. Hayt) came to see us. I told him, as I told every one, that I expected General Miles’s word would be carried out. He said it “could not be done; that white men now lived in my country and all the land was taken up; that, if I returned to Wallowa, I could not live in peace; that law-papers were out against my young men who began the war, and that the Government could not protect my people.” This talk fell like a heavy stone upon my heart. I saw that I could not gain anything by talking to him. Other law chiefs (Congressional Committee) came to see me and said they would help me to get a healthy country. I did not know who to believe. The white people have too many chiefs. They do not understand each other. They do not all talk alike.

The Commissioner Chief (Mr. Hayt) invited me to go with him and hunt for a better home than we have now. I like the land we found (west of the Osage reservation) better than any place I have seen in that country; but it is not a healthy land. There are no mountains and rivers. The water is warm. It is not a good country for stock. I do not believe my people can live there. I am afraid they will all die. The Indians who occupy that country are dying off. I promised Chief Hayt to go there, and do the best I could until the Government got ready to make good General Miles’s word. I was not satisfied, but I could not help myself. Then the Inspector Chief (General McNiel) came to my camp and we had a long talk. He said I ought to have a home in the mountain country north, and that he would write a letter to the Great Chief at Washington. Again the hope of seeing the mountains of Idaho and Oregon grew up in my heart.

At last I was granted permission to come to Washington and bring my friend Yellow Bull and our interpreter with me. I am glad we came. I have shaken hands with a great many friends, but there are some things I want to know which no one seems able to explain. I can not understand how the Government sends a man out to fight us, as it did General Miles, and then breaks his word. Such a Government has something wrong about it. I can not understand why so many chiefs are allowed to talk so many different ways, and promise so many different things. I have seen the Great Father Chief (the President), the next Great Chief (Secretary of the Interior), the Commissioner Chief (Hayt), the Law Chief (General Butler), and many other law chiefs (Congressmen), and they all say they are my friends, and that I shall have justice, but while their mouths all talk right I do not understand why nothing is done for my people. I have heard talk and talk, but nothing is done. Good words do not last long unless they amount to something. Words do not pay for my dead people. They do not pay for my country, now overrun by white men. They do not protect my father’s grave. They do not pay for all my horses and cattle. Good words will not give me back my children. Good words will not make good the promise of your War Chief General Miles. Good words will not give my people good health and stop them from dying. Good words will not get my people a home where they can live in peace and take care of themselves. I am tired of talk that comes to nothing. It makes my heart sick when I remember all the good words and all the broken promises. There has been too much talking by men who had no right to talk. Too many misrepresentations have been made, too many misunderstandings have come up between the white men about the Indians. If the white man wants to live in peace with the Indian he can live in peace. There need be no trouble. Treat all men alike. Give them all the same law. Give them all an even chance to live and grow. All men were made by the same Great Spirit Chief. They are all brothers. The earth is the mother of all people, and all people should have equal rights upon it. You might as well expect the rivers to run backward as that any man who was born a free man should be contented when penned up and denied liberty to go where he pleases. If you tie a horse to a stake, do you expect he will grow fat? If you pen an Indian up on a small spot of earth, and compel him to stay there, he will not be contented, nor will he grow and prosper. I have asked some of the great white chiefs where they get their authority to say to the Indian that he shall stay in one place, while he sees white men going where they please. They can not tell me.

I only ask of the Government to be treated as all other men are treated. If I can not go to my own home, let me have a home in some country where my people will not die so fast. I would like to go to Bitter Root Valley. There my people would be healthy; where they are now they are dying. Three have died since I left my camp to come to Washington. When I think of our condition my heart is heavy. I see men of my race treated as outlaws and driven from country to country, or shot down like animals. I know that my race must change. We can not hold our own with the white men as we are. We only ask an even chance to live as other men live. We ask to be recognized as men. We ask that the same law shall work alike on all men. If the Indian breaks the law, punish him by the law. If the white man breaks the law, punish him also.

Let me be a free man — free to travel, free to stop, free to work, free to trade where I choose, free to choose my own teachers, free to follow the religion of my fathers, free to think and talk and act for myself — and I will obey every law, or submit to the penalty.

Whenever the white man treats the Indian as they treat each other, then we will have no more wars. We shall all be alike –brothers of one father and one mother, with one sky above us and one country around us, and one government for all. Then the Great Spirit Chief who rules above will smile upon this land, and send rain to wash out the bloody spots made by brothers’ hands from the face of the earth. For this time the Indian race are waiting and praying. I hope that no more groans of wounded men and women will ever go to the ear of the Great Spirit Chief above, and that all people may be one people.

In-mut-too-yah-lat-lat has spoken for his people.

Young Joseph.

Washington City, D.C.